1. What is Prostate Cancer?

Ans: It is a walnut-sized gland which is a part of the reproductive system of a man. It is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It occurs when cells grows out of control in the prostate gland.


2. What are the risk factors for developing prostate cancer:

Ans: The primary risk factor is an age of above 60 years, as the 60% cases are found in persons aged above 65 years, and the average diagnosis age is 66.


3. What common symptoms of Prostate cancer?

Ans: For many males, there could be no symptoms, this is why screening is important. The symptoms commonly found are:

  • Frequent urgency of urination
  • Pain during urination
  • Weak or disrupting urination
  • Trouble in having an erection
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Blood in the urine


4. How to diagnose prostate cancer?

Ans: Both blood tests and physical examination are required in diagnosing prostate cancer. A test Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures PSA levels in the blood. It is a protein produced by the prostate, its high level in blood may indicate prostate cancer.

Physical examination includes digital rectal examination (DRE), in which a doctor inserts a finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland. A lump in it can indicate prostate cancer.


5. How is prostate cancer treated?

The treatment of prostate cancer depends upon its stages:

In stage 1: No symptoms are in stage 1 as the cancer is in the only prostate. “Active Surveillance” is to monitor cancer.


In stage 2: Cancer is still in the prostate but is larger and PSA levels get an increase. Active surveillance along with the removal of prostate & surrounding tissue, radiation therapy are treatment options.


In stage 3: Cancer grows outside the prostate but doesn’t spread. The treatment includes radiation therapy,


In stage 4: Cancer spreads to nearby tissues and lymph nodes. Stage 4 cancers are treatable with all other methods of previous stages.


6. What are Survival rates in prostate cancer have improved?

Ans: Prostate cancer survival rates have improved by a good extent over the years. Today, the number of deaths is approx. 24 per 100,000 cases, while it was 39 per 100,000 patients in the years 1991-1994.


7. When should I start testing for prostate cancer?

Ans: After reaching the age of 50, you should start a routine for prostate cancer.


8. To whom should I meet for Treatment of prostate cancer?

Ans: If you are facing prostate cancer you should consult an oncologist. Oncologists are experts in treating such cancers.


9. What is a multi-disciplinary team (MDT)?

Ans: The Multi-disciplinary team (MDT) is a team of healthcare professionals with the necessary skills to diagnose and treat patients with cancers like leukaemia, lymphoma.

1. If there is a lump in the breast, it is always cancer.

Mostly, breast lumps are not cancerous. The common types of non-cancerous breast lumps are fibrosis (fibrous breast tissue in large amount) and cysts (fluid-filled sacs). In case you notice any breasts lumps or changes in one of your breasts consult your doctor.


2. The risk factor of breast cancer can’t be inherited.

No. Women having a family with a strong history of breast cancer have a higher risk compared with others of developing this disease. In fact, the risk gets double if your mother, sister, daughter has suffered from this disease.


3. Which is the most commonly found breast cancer?

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is one of the most common breast cancer and accounts for 80% of breast cancer cases.

It begins in the milk duct of the breast and then infiltrates the fibrous tissue of the breast. After this, the cancer cells then have the capability to other parts of the body.


4. Do benign tumours have the capability of metastasizing?

No, benign itself means no metastasizing. These tumours don’t have the capability of uncontrolled growth and can’t grow into the other tissues.


5. Breast pain is the most common symptom of breast cancer.

No, breast pain is not a common symptom of breast cancer. In fact, many times on screening, it is found that breast cancers are very small and don’t produce symptoms at all.


6. What should I do if I found a lump in the breast?

On finding a lump is found you should immediately consult your doctor. It is not necessary every breast lump or masses are not cancer.

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